LPIC-2 Objectives V3

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Contents

Introduction

This is a required exam for LPI certification Level 2. It covers advanced skills for the Linux professional that are common across all distributions of Linux.

We are attempting to create a Body of Knowledge for these objectives.

Version Information

These objectives are version 3.5.0.

This is also a summary and detailed information on the changes from version 2.x to 3.x of the objectives.

And here is a link to the beta 4.x version and new LPI-300 exam objectives.

Addenda

Version Upgrade Addendum (Aug 1st, 2012)

  • updated to version 3.5.0
  • added explicit coverage of the ext4 filesystem in 203.2 key terms list.
  • added explicit coverage of the IPv6 in 205.1 description.
  • added basic feature knowledge of encrypted filesystems in 203.3 key terms list.
  • added basic feature knowledge of xfsdump/xfsrestore commands in 203.2 key terms list.
  • added explicit coverage of Linux 3.x kernel in 201.1, 201.2, 201.5 key terms list and description.

Clarification Addendum (Jul 1st, 2011)

  • added Configuring and using transaction signatures (TSIG) in 207.3 key terms list.
  • added Signing zones using DNSSEC in 207.3 key terms list.

Clarification Addendum (Jan 1st, 2011)

  • moved depmod from make targets to own place in 201.4 partial file list.

Clarification Addendum (Jul 1st, 2010)

  • fixed ~/.procmailrc reference in 212.1 partial file list.

Clarification Addendum (Oct 1st, 2009)

  • dropped routed from 212.1 key terms list.

Clarification Addendum (Apr 1st, 2009)

  • added uuidgen, tune2fs (-U) in 301.1 partial file list.
  • added TSIG in 207.3 partial file list
  • dropped cloneconfig and prepare-all from 201.2 partial file list.
  • added xfs_info, xfs_check and xfs_repair in 203.2 partial file list.
  • expanded details on HFS/ISO9660/UDF file systems and extensions in 203.3 key terms list.
  • added awareness of sdparm in 204.2 partial file list.
  • added iwlist in 205.1 partial file list.
  • changed terminology from "make options" to "make targets" in 201.2 key terms list.

Clarification Addendum (Jan 1st, 2009)

  • added vol_id, blkid and /dev/disk/* in 203.1 partial file list.



Translations of Objectives

The following translations of the objectives are available on this wiki:


Objectives: Exam 201

Topic 201: Linux Kernel

201.1 Kernel Components

Weight

2
Description Candidates should be able to utilise kernel components that are necessary to specific hardware, hardware drivers, system resources and requirements. This objective includes implementing different types of kernel images, identifying stable and development kernels and patches, as well as using kernel modules.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Kernel 2.6.x documentation
  • Kernel 3.x documentation

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /usr/src/linux
  • /usr/src/linux/Documentation
  • zImage
  • bzImage


201.2 Compiling a kernel

Weight

2
Description Candidates should be able to properly configure a kernel to include or disable specific features of the Linux kernel as necessary. This objective includes compiling and recompiling the Linux kernel as needed, updating and noting changes in a new kernel, creating an initrd image and installing new kernels.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • /usr/src/linux/
  • GRUB configuration files
  • Kernel 2.6.x make targets
  • Kernel 3.x make targets

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • mkinitrd
  • mkinitramfs
  • make
  • make targets (config, xconfig, menuconfig, oldconfig, mrproper, zImage, bzImage, modules, modules_install)


201.3 Patching a kernel

Weight

1
Description Candidates should be able to properly patch a kernel to add support for new hardware. This objective also includes being able to properly remove kernel patches from already patched kernels.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Kernel Makefiles

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • patch
  • gzip
  • bzip2


201.4 Customise, build and install a custom kernel and kernel modules

Weight

2
Description Candidates should be able to customise, build and install a 2.6 or 3.x kernel for specific system requirements, by patching, compiling and editing configuration files as required. This objective includes being able to assess requirements for a kernel compile as well as build and configure kernel modules.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Customize the current kernel configuration.
  • Build a new kernel and appropriate kernel modules.
  • Install a new kernel and any modules.
  • Ensure that the boot manager can locate the new kernel and associated files.
  • /usr/src/linux/
  • Module configuration files

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • patch
  • make
  • module tools
  • /usr/src/linux/*
  • /usr/src/linux/.config
  • /lib/modules/kernel-version/*
  • /boot/*
  • make targets: all, config, menuconfig, xconfig, gconfig oldconfig, modules, install, modules_install, rpm-pkg, binrpm-pkg, deb-pkg
  • depmod


201.5 Manage/Query kernel and kernel modules at runtime

Weight

3
Description Candidates should be able to manage and/or query a 2.6.x or 3.x kernel and its loadable modules.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Use command-line utilities to get information about the currently running kernel and kernel modules.
  • Manually load and unload kernel modules.
  • Determine when modules can be unloaded.
  • Determine what parameters a module accepts.
  • Configure the system to load modules by names other than their file name.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /lib/modules/kernel-version/modules.dep
  • module configuration files in /etc
  • /proc/sys/kernel/
  • depmod
  • insmod
  • lsmod
  • rmmod
  • modinfo
  • modprobe
  • uname



Topic 202: System Startup

202.1 Customising system startup and boot processes

Weight

4
Description Candidates should be able to query and modify the behaviour of system services at various run levels. A thorough understanding of the init structure and boot process is required. This objective includes interacting with run levels.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Linux Standard Base Specification (LSB)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/inittab
  • /etc/init.d/
  • /etc/rc.d/
  • chkconfig
  • update-rc.d


202.2 System recovery

Weight

4
Description Candidates should be able to properly manipulate a Linux system during both the boot process and during recovery mode. This objective includes using both the init utility and init-related kernel options.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • inittab
  • GRUB
  • grub shell

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • init
  • mount
  • fsck
  • telinit



Topic 203: Filesystem and Devices

203.1 Operating the Linux filesystem

Weight

4
Description Candidates should be able to properly configure and navigate the standard Linux filesystem. This objective includes configuring and mounting various filesystem types.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • The concept of the fstab configuration
  • Tools and utilities for handling SWAP partitions and files
  • Use of UUIDs

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/fstab
  • /etc/mtab
  • /proc/mounts
  • mount and umount
  • sync
  • swapon
  • swapoff


203.2 Maintaining a Linux filesystem

Weight

3
Description Candidates should be able to properly maintain a Linux filesystem using system utilities. This objective includes manipulating standard filesystems.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Tools and utilities to manipulate and ext2, ext3 and ext4
  • Tools and utilities to manipulate reiserfs V3
  • Tools and utilities to manipulate xfs

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • fsck (fsck.*)
  • badblocks
  • mkfs (mkfs.*)
  • dumpe2fs, xfsdump, xfsrestore
  • debugfs, debugreiserfs
  • tune2fs, reiserfstune
  • mkswap
  • xfs_info, xfs_check and xfs_repair


203.3 Creating and configuring filesystem options

Weight

2
Description Candidates should be able to configure automount filesystems using AutoFS. This objective includes configuring automount for network and device filesystems. Also included is creating filesystems for devices such as CD-ROMs and a basic feature knowledge of encrypted filesystems.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • autofs configuration files
  • UDF and ISO9660 tools and utilities
  • awareness of CD-ROM filesystems (UDF, ISO9660, HFS)
  • awareness of CD-ROM filesystem extensions (Joliet, Rock Ridge, El Torito)
  • basic feature knowledge of encrypted filesystems

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/auto.master
  • /etc/auto.[dir]
  • mkisofs
  • dd
  • mke2fs


203.4 udev Device Management

Weight

1
Description Candidates should understand device detection and management using udev. This objective includes troubleshooting udev rules.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • udev rules
  • Kernel interface

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • udevmonitor
  • /etc/udev



Topic 204: Advanced Storage Device Administration

204.1 Configuring RAID

Weight

2
Description Candidates should be able to configure and implement software RAID. This objective includes using and configuring RAID 0, 1 and 5.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Software raid configuration files and utilities

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • mdadm.conf
  • mdadm
  • /proc/mdstat
  • fdisk


204.2 Adjusting Storage Device Access

Weight

1
Description Candidates should be able to configure kernel options to support various drives. This objective includes software tools to view & modify hard disk settings.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Tools and utilities to configure DMA for IDE devices including ATAPI and SATA
  • Tools and utilities to manipulate or analyse system resources (e.g. interrupts)
  • Awareness of sdparm command and its uses

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • hdparm
  • sdparm
  • tune2fs
  • sysctl
  • /dev/hd* & /dev/sd*


204.3 Logical Volume Manager

Weight

3
Description Candidates should be able to create and remove logical volumes, volume groups, and physical volumes. This objective includes snapshots and resizing logical volumes.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Tools in the LVM suite
  • Resizing, renaming, creating, and removing logical volumes, volume groups, and physical volumes
  • Creating and maintaining snapshots
  • Activating volume groups

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /sbin/pv*
  • /sbin/lv*
  • /sbin/vg*
  • mount
  • /dev/mapper/



Topic 205: Networking Configuration

205.1 Basic networking configuration

Weight

3
Description Candidates should be able to configure a network device to be able to connect to a local, wired or wireless, and a wide-area network. This objective includes being able to communicate between various subnets within a single network including both IPv4 and IPv6 networks.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
  • Configuring wireless networks

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /sbin/route
  • /sbin/ifconfig
  • /sbin/ip
  • /usr/sbin/arp
  • /sbin/iwconfig
  • /sbin/iwlist


205.2 Advanced Network Configuration and Troubleshooting

Weight

4
Description Candidates should be able to configure a network device to implement various network authentication schemes. This objective includes configuring a multi-homed network device, configuring a VPN client and resolving communication problems.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Utilities to manipulate routing tables
  • Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
  • Utilities to analyse the status of the network devices
  • Utilities to monitor and analyse the TCP/IP traffic
  • OpenVPN

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /sbin/route
  • /sbin/ifconfig
  • /bin/netstat
  • /bin/ping
  • /usr/sbin/arp
  • /usr/sbin/tcpdump
  • /usr/sbin/lsof
  • /usr/bin/nc
  • /sbin/ip
  • /etc/openvpn/*
  • openvpn
  • nmap
  • wireshark


205.3 Troubleshooting network issues

Weight

5
Description Candidates should be able to identify and correct common network setup issues, to include knowledge of locations for basic configuration files and commands.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Location and content of access restriction files
  • Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
  • Utilities to manage routing tables
  • Utilities to list network states.
  • Utilities to gain information about the network configuration
  • Methods of information about the recognised and used hardware devices
  • System initialisation files and their contents (SysV init process)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /sbin/ifconfig
  • /sbin/route
  • /bin/netstat
  • /etc/network || /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
  • System log files such as /var/log/syslog & /var/log/messages
  • /bin/ping
  • /etc/resolv.conf
  • /etc/hosts
  • /etc/hosts.allow & /etc/hosts.deny
  • /etc/hostname | /etc/HOSTNAME
  • /bin/hostname
  • /usr/sbin/traceroute
  • /usr/bin/dig
  • /bin/dmesg
  • /usr/bin/host


205.4 Notify users on system-related issues

Weight

1
Description Candidates should be able to notify the users about current issues related to the system.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Automate communication with users through logon messages.
  • Inform active users of system maintenance

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/issue
  • /etc/issue.net
  • /etc/motd
  • wall
  • /sbin/shutdown



Topic 206: System Maintenance

206.1 Make and install programs from source

Weight

4
Description Candidates should be able to build and install an executable program from source. This objective includes being able to unpack a file of sources.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Unpack source code using common compression and archive utilities.
  • Understand basics of invoking make to compile programs.
  • Apply parameters to a configure script.
  • Know where sources are stored by default.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /usr/src/
  • gunzip
  • gzip
  • bzip2
  • tar
  • configure
  • make
  • uname
  • install


206.2 Backup operations

Weight

3
Description Candidates should be able to use system tools to back up important system data.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Knowledge about directories that have to be include in backups
  • Awareness of network backup solutions such as Amanda, Bacula and BackupPC
  • Knowledge of the benefits and drawbacks of tapes, CDR, disk or other backup media
  • Perform partial and manual backups.
  • Verify the integrity of backup files.
  • Partially or fully restore backups.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /bin/sh
  • cpio
  • dd
  • tar
  • /dev/st* and /dev/nst*
  • mt
  • rsync



Topic 207: Domain Name Server

207.1 Basic DNS server configuration

Weight

2
Description Candidates should be able to configure BIND to function as a caching-only DNS server. This objective includes the ability to convert older BIND configuration files to newer format, managing a running server and configuring logging.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • BIND 9.x configuration files, terms and utilities
  • Defining the location of the BIND zone files in BIND configuration files
  • Reloading modified configuration and zone files

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/named.conf
  • /var/named/*
  • /usr/sbin/rndc
  • kill


207.2 Create and maintain DNS zones

Weight

2
Description Candidates should be able to create a zone file for a forward or reverse zone or root level server. This objective includes setting appropriate values for records, adding hosts in zones and adding zones to the DNS. A candidate should also be able to delegate zones to another DNS server.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • BIND 9 configuration files, terms and utilities
  • Utilities to request information from the DNS server
  • Layout, content and file location of the BIND zone files
  • Various methods to add a new host in the zone files, including reverse zones


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /var/named/*
  • zone file syntax
  • resource record formats
  • dig
  • nslookup
  • host


207.3 Securing a DNS server

Weight

2
Description Candidates should be able to configure a DNS server to run as a non-root user and run in a chroot jail. This objective includes secure exchange of data between DNS servers.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • BIND 9 configuration files
  • Configuring BIND to run in a chroot jail
  • Split configuration of BIND using the forwarders statement
  • Configuring and using transaction signatures (TSIG)
  • Signing zones using DNSSEC

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/named.conf
  • /etc/passwd
  • DNSSEC
  • dnssec-keygen


Objectives: Exam 202

Topic 208: Web Services

208.1 Implementing a web server

Weight

3
Description Candidates should be able to install and configure a web server. This objective includes monitoring the server's load and performance, restricting client user access, configuring support for scripting languages as modules and setting up client user authentication. Also included is configuring server options to restrict usage of resources.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Apache 2.x configuration files, terms and utilities
  • Apache log files configuration and content
  • Access restriction methods and files
  • mod_perl and PHP configuration
  • Client user authentication files and utilities
  • Configuration of maximum requests, minimum and maximum servers and clients

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • access logs and error logs
  • .htaccess
  • httpd.conf
  • mod_auth
  • htpasswd
  • htgroup
  • apache2ctl
  • httpd


208.2 Maintaining a web server

Weight

2
Description Candidates should be able to configure a web server to use virtual hosts, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and customise file access.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • SSL configuration files, tools and utilities
  • SSL certificate handling
  • Apache 2.x virtual host implementation (with and without dedicated IP addresses)
  • Using redirect statements in Apache's configuration files to customise file access

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • Apache2 configuration files
  • /etc/ssl/*
  • openssl


208.3 Implementing a proxy server

Weight

1
Description Candidates should be able to install and configure a proxy server, including access policies, authentication and resource usage.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Squid 2.x configuration files, terms and utilities
  • Access restriction methods
  • Client user authentication methods
  • Layout and content of ACL in the Squid configuration files

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • squid.conf
  • acl
  • http_access



Topic 209: File Sharing

209.1 SAMBA Server Configuration

Weight

4
Description Candidates should be able to set up a SAMBA server for various clients. This objective includes setting up Samba for login clients and setting up the workgroup in which a server participates and defining shared directories and printers. Also covered is a configuring a Linux client to use a Samba server. Troubleshooting installations is also tested.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Samba 3 documentation
  • Samba configuration files
  • Samba tools and utilities
  • Mounting Samba shares on Linux
  • Samba daemons
  • Mapping Windows user names to Linux user names
  • User-Level and Share-Level security

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • smbd, nmbd
  • smbstatus, testparm, smbpasswd, nmblookup
  • smbclient
  • net
  • /etc/smb/*
  • /var/log/samba/


209.2 NFS Server Configuration

Weight

4
Description Candidates should be able to export filesystems using NFS. This objective includes access restrictions, mounting an NFS filesystem on a client and securing NFS.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • NFS configuration files
  • NFS tools and utilities
  • Access restrictions to certain hosts and/or subnets
  • Mount options on server and client
  • tcpwrappers

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/exports
  • exportfs
  • showmount
  • nfsstat
  • /proc/mounts
  • /etc/fstab
  • rpcinfo
  • mountd
  • portmapper



Topic 210: Network Client Management

210.1 DHCP configuration

Weight

2
Description Candidates should be able to configure a DHCP server. This objective includes setting default and per client options, adding static hosts and BOOTP hosts. Also included is configuring a DHCP relay agent and maintaining the DHCP server.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • DHCP configuration files, terms and utilities
  • Subnet and dynamically-allocated range setup

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • dhcpd.conf
  • dhcpd.leases
  • /var/log/daemon.log and /var/log/messages
  • arp
  • dhcpd


210.2 PAM authentication

Weight

3
Description The candidate should be able to configure PAM to support authentication using various available methods.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • PAM configuration files, terms and utilities
  • passwd and shadow passwords

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/pam.d
  • pam.conf
  • nsswitch.conf
  • pam_unix, pam_cracklib, pam_limits, pam_listfile


210.3 LDAP client usage

Weight

2
Description Candidates should be able to perform queries and updates to an LDAP server. Also included is importing and adding items, as well as adding and managing users.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • LDAP utilities for data management and queries
  • Change user passwords
  • Querying the LDAP directory

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • ldapsearch
  • ldappasswd
  • ldapadd
  • ldapdelete



Topic 211: E-Mail Services

211.1 Using e-mail servers

Weight

3
Description Candidates should be able to manage an e-mail server, including the configuration of e-mail aliases, e-mail quotas and virtual e-mail domains. This objective includes configuring internal e-mail relays and monitoring e-mail servers.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Configuration files for postfix
  • Basic knowledge of the SMTP protocol, sendmail, and exim

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • Configuration files and commands for postfix
  • Basic configuration of sendmail
  • /etc/aliases
  • /etc/mail/*
  • /etc/postfix/*
  • sendmail emulation layer commands
  • /var/spool/mail
  • mail-related logs in /var/log/


211.2 Managing Local E-Mail Delivery

Weight

2
Description Candidates should be able to implement client e-mail management software to filter, sort and monitor incoming user e-mail.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • procmail configuration files, tools and utilities
  • Usage of procmail on both server and client side

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • ~/.procmailrc
  • /etc/procmailrc
  • procmail
  • mbox and Maildir formats


211.3 Managing Remote E-Mail Delivery

Weight

2
Description Candidates should be able to install and configure POP and IMAP daemons.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Courier IMAP and Courier POP configuration
  • Dovecot configuration

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/courier/*
  • dovecot.conf



Topic 212: System Security

212.1 Configuring a router

Weight

3
Description Candidates should be able to configure a system to perform network address translation (NAT, IP masquerading) and state its significance in protecting a network. This objective includes configuring port redirection, managing filter rules and averting attacks.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • iptables configuration files, tools and utilities
  • Tools, commands and utilities to manage routing tables.
  • Private address ranges
  • Port redirection and IP forwarding
  • List and write filtering and rules that accept or block datagrams based on source or destination protocol, port and address
  • Save and reload filtering configurations

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /proc/sys/net/ipv4
  • /etc/services
  • iptables


212.2 Securing FTP servers

Weight

2
Description Candidates should be able to configure an FTP server for anonymous downloads and uploads. This objective includes precautions to be taken if anonymous uploads are permitted and configuring user access.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Configuration files, tools and utilities for Pure-FTPd and vsftpd
  • Awareness of ProFTPd
  • Understanding of passive vs. active FTP connections

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • vsftpd.conf
  • important Pure-FTPd command line options


212.3 Secure shell (SSH)

Weight

4
Description Candidates should be able to configure and secure an SSH daemon. This objective includes managing keys and configuring SSH for users. Candidates should also be able to forward an application protocol over SSH and manage the SSH login.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • OpenSSH configuration files, tools and utilities
  • Login restrictions for the superuser and the normal users
  • Managing and using server and client keys to login with and without password
  • Usage of XWindow and other application protocols through SSH tunnels
  • Configuration of ssh-agent
  • Usage of multiple connections from multiple hosts to guard against loss of connection to remote host following configuration changes

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • ssh
  • sshd
  • /etc/ssh/sshd_config
  • Private and public key files
  • ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
  • PermitRootLogin, PubKeyAuthentication, AllowUsers, PasswordAuthentication, Protocol


212.4 TCP Wrapper

Weight

1
Description Candidates should be able to configure TCP Wrapper to allow connections to specified servers only from certain hosts or subnets.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • TCP Wrapper configuration files, tools and utilities
  • inetd configuration files, tools and utilities

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/inetd.conf
  • /etc/hosts.allow
  • /etc/hosts.deny
  • libwrap
  • tcpd


212.5 Security tasks

Weight

3
Description Candidates should be able to receive security alerts from various sources, install, configure and run intrusion detection systems and apply security patches and bugfixes.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Tools and utilities to scan and test ports on a server
  • Locations and organisations that report security alerts as Bugtraq, CERT, CIAC or other sources
  • Tools and utilities to implement an intrusion detection system (IDS)
  • Awareness of OpenVAS

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • telnet
  • nmap
  • snort
  • fail2ban
  • nc
  • iptables



Topic 213: Troubleshooting

213.1 Identifying boot stages and troubleshooting bootloaders

Weight

4
Description Candidates should be able to determine the cause of errors in loading and usage of bootloaders. GRUB and LILO are the bootloaders of interest.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • boot loader start and hand off to kernel
  • kernel loading
  • hardware initialisation and setup
  • daemon/service initialisation and setup
  • Know the different bootloader install locations on a hard disk or removable device
  • Overwriting standard bootloader options and using bootloader shells


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • The contents of /boot/ and /boot/grub/
  • GRUB
  • grub-install
  • initrd, initramfs
  • Master boot record
  • /etc/init.d
  • lilo
  • /etc/lilo.conf


213.2 General troubleshooting

Weight

5
Description Candidates should be able to identify and correct common boot and run time issues.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • /proc filesystem
  • Various system and daemon log files
  • Content of /, /boot , and /lib/modules
  • Screen output during bootup
  • Kernel syslog entries in system logs (if entry is able to be gained)
  • Tools and utilities to analyse information about the used hardware
  • Tools and utilities to trace software and their system and library calls

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • dmesg
  • /sbin/lspci
  • /usr/bin/lsdev
  • /sbin/lsmod
  • /sbin/modprobe
  • /sbin/insmod
  • /bin/uname
  • strace
  • strings
  • ltrace
  • lsof
  • lsusb


213.3 Troubleshooting system resources

Weight

5
Description Candidates should be able to identify, diagnose and repair local system issues when using software from the command line.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Core system variables
  • The contents of:
    • /etc/profile && /etc/profile.d/
    • /etc/init.d/
    • /etc/rc.*
    • /etc/sysctl.conf
    • /etc/bashrc
    • /etc/ld.so.conf
    • or other appropriate global shell configuration files
  • Any standard editor
  • Standard tools, utilites and commands to manipulate the above files and variables

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /bin/ln
  • /bin/rm
  • /sbin/ldconfig
  • /sbin/sysctl


213.4 Troubleshooting environment configurations

Weight

5
Description Candidates should be able to identify common local system and user environment configuration issues and common repair techniques.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Core system variables
  • init configuration files
  • init start process
  • cron configuration files
  • Login process
  • User-password storage files
  • Determine user group associations
  • SHELL configuration files of bash
  • Analysing which processes or daemons are running

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/inittab
  • /etc/rc.local
  • /etc/rc.boot
  • /var/spool/cron/crontabs/
  • The default shell configuration file(s) in /etc/
  • /etc/login.defs
  • /etc/syslog.conf
  • /etc/passwd
  • /etc/shadow
  • /etc/group
  • /sbin/init
  • /usr/sbin/cron
  • /usr/bin/crontab


Reference Material

Future Change Considerations

Future changes to the objective will/may include:

  • consider dropping LILO (JTA should be used) and including other loaders such as iso/sys/pxelinux
  • EFI Shell, GRUB 1.99 and backported EFI boot support in GRUB 0.97, Parted slicing of GPT, etc
  • Topic 208: adding basic knowledge of nginx, lighttpd and cherokee?
  • re-organize troubleshooting to split it in relevant topics